References

  1. Data on file, Merck Animal Health.
  2. Larson LJ, Schultz RD. Do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c variant? Vet Ther. 2008;9(2):94–101.
  3. Schultz RD, Thiel B, Mukhtar E, Sharp P, Larson LJ. Age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol. 2010;142 Suppl 1:S102–S108.
  4. Greene C, Rupprecht C. Rabies and other lyssavirus infections. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:167–183.
  5. LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL, et al. Bacterin that induces anti-OspA and anti-OspC borreliacidal antibodies provides a high level of protection against canine Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine lmmunol. 2009;16(2):253-259.
  6. Hartmann K. Feline leukemia virus infection. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:105-108.
  7. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine; American Association of Feline Practitioners. Feline leukemia virus. Available at: https://www.vet.cornell.edu/departments-centers-and-institutes/cornell-felinehealth-center/health-information/feline-health-topics/feline-leukemia-virus-brochure.
    Accessed September 30,2020.
  8. Spibey N, Greenwood NM, Sutton D, Chalmers WS, Tarpey I. Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128(1-2) :48-55.
  9. Greene CE, Decaro N. Canine viral enteritis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2012:67-80.
  10. Gore TC, Lakshmanan N, Duncan KL, Coyne ML, Lum MA, Sterner FJ. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus. Vet Ther. 2005;6(1):5–14
  11. Deshpande MS, Jirjis FF, Tubbs A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine in dogs following experimental challenge. Vet Ther.2009;10(3):103–112.
  12. Deshpande MS, Jirjis FF, Tubbs A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine in dogs following experimental challenge. Vet Ther.2009;10(3):104–112.
  13. Larson LJ, Henningson J, Sharp P, et al. Efficacy of the canine influenza virus H3N8 vaccine to decrease severity of clinical disease after cochallenge with canine influenza virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Clin Vaccine Jmmunol. 2011;18(4):559- 564.
  14. Bey RF, Shade FJ, Goodnow RA, Johnson RC. Intranasal vaccination of dogs with live avirulent Bordetella bronchiseptica: correlation of serum agglutination titer and the formation of secretory IgA with protection against experimentally induced infectious tracheobronchitis. Am J Vet Res. 1981;42(7):1130–1132.
  15. Lehr C, Jayappa H, Erskine J, Brown A, Sweeney D, Wasmoen T. Demonstration of 1-year of immunity for attenuated Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in dogs. Vet Ther. 2008;9(4):257–262.
  16. Davis R, Jayappa H, Abdelmagid OY, Armstrong R, Sweeney D, Lehr C. Comparison of the mucosal immune response in dogs vaccinated with either an intranasal avirulent live culture or a subcutaneous antigen extract vaccine of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet Ther. 2007;8(1):32–40.
  17. Information sheet: Canine: Infectious respiratory disease complex (aka “kennel cough”). UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program website. Updated July 9, 2015. Available at: https://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/?r=canineinfectious- respiratory-disease-complex-cirdc-a-k-a-kennel-cough. Accessed September 30, 2020.
  18. Cohn LA, Reinero CR. Respiratory defenses in health and disease. Vet Clin Small Anim. 2007;37(5):845–860.
  19. Ford R. Canine infectious respiratory disease. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012:Chapter 6
  20. Ford R. Canine infectious tracheobronchitis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:55.
  21. LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL. Prevention of disease and mortality in vaccinated dogs following experimental challenge with virulent leptospira. J Vet Int Med, May/June 2011, Vol 25, Issue 3; 747.
  22. LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Tubbs AL, et al. Prevention of leptospiremia and leptospiruria following vaccination with a DAPPv + 4-way leptospira combination vaccine. Abstract & Poster, ISCAID meeting, Bristol, UK, 2016.
  23. J.E. Sykes, K. Hartmann, K.F. Lunn, et al. 2010 ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Leptospirosis: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention. J Vet Intern Med 2011; 25: 1–13.
  24. Nobivac® Lepto4 [product label], Madison, NJ: Merck Animal Health; 2018.
  25. VANGUARD® L4 [product label]. Florham Park, NJ: Zoetis, Inc; 2017.
  26. RECOMBITEK® 4 Lepto [product label]. Duluth, GA: Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health; 2017.
  27. ULTRA™ Duramune® 4L, LEPTOVAX® 4 [product labels]. Greenfield, IN: Elanco; 2017.
  28. American Veterinary Medical Association. Feline vaccines: benefits and risks. Available at: https://www.vet.cornell.edu/departments-centers-and-institutes/cornellfeline-health-center/health-information/feline-health-topics/feline-vaccines-benefitsand-risks. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  29. Schwan TG, Piesman J. Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(2):115-121.
  30. Greene CE, Straubinger K Reinhard. Borreliosis. In: Greene CE. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:417-435.
  31. Greene CE, Addie DD. Feline parvovirus infections. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:78.
  32. Greene CE, Sykes JE. Chlamydial infections. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:245–252.
  33. Gaskell R, Dawson S, Radford A. Feline respiratory disease. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:147.
  34. Green C, Appel M. Canine distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:27.
  35. McCaw D, Hoskins J. Canine viral enteritis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:63–73.
  36. Canine influenza backgrounder. AVMA Website. Available at: https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/canine-influenza. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  37. Beeler E. Influenza in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009;39(2):251–264.
  38. Information sheet: Canine influenza. UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program website. Updated October 30, 2017. Available at: https://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/?r=canine-influenza. Accessed September 30, 2020.
  39. Canine influenza backgrounder. AVMA Website. Available at: https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/canine-influenza. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  40. Crawford C, Spindel M. Canine influenza. In: Miller L, Hurley K, eds. Infectious Disease Management in Animal Shelters. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009:173-180.
  41. Canine influenza. The Center for Food Security & Public Health. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University. Available at: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/canine_influenza.pdf. Updated June 2014. Accessed December 9, 2015.
  42. Information sheet: Canine influenza Virus (H3N2) Outbreak. UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program website. Updated April 17, 2015. Available at: https://www.sheltermedicine.com/canine-influenza-virus-h3n2-outbreak/. Accessed September 30, 2020.
  43. NYS Animal Health Diagnostic Center at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Website. Available at: https://www.vet.cornell.edu/animalhealth-diagnostic-center/veterinary-support/disease-information/canine-influenzavirus. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  44. Anderson TC, Katz JM, Gibbs EPJ, Crawford PC. Development of a hemagglutination inhibition assay for diagnosis of canine influenza virus infection. Paper presented at: 110th Annual Meeting USAHA and 49th Annual Conference of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians; October 12-18, 2006; Minneapolis, MN.
  1. Healthcare Workers – Technical Information for Leptospirosis.
    Available at:https://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/health_care_workers/index.html.
    Accessed January 7, 2020.
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/infection/index.html. Accessed June 6, 2018
  3. https://www.akcchf.org/educational-resources/library/articles/canine-leptospirosison-the.html. Accessed June 6, 2018.
  4. White AM, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Allen T, et al. Hotspots of canine leptospirosis in the United States of America. The Vet Journal 2017; 222: 29–35.
  5. Harkin KR, Roshto YM, Sullivan JT, et al. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction assay, bacteriologic culture, and serologic testing in assessment of prevalence of urinary shedding of leptospires in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1230–1233.
  6. Greene CE, Sykes JE, Moore GE, et al. Leptospirosis In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2012: 431-447.
  7. J.E. Sykes, K. Hartmann, K.F. Lunn, et al. 2010 ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on Leptospirosis: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention. J Vet Intern Med 2011; 25: 1–13.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported cases of Lyme disease by state or locality, 2003–2012.
    http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/chartstables/reportedcases_statelocality.html.
    Accessed December 9, 2020.
  9. Maes R. Felid herpesvirus type 1 infection in cats: a natural host model for alphaherpesvirus pathogenesis. ISRN Vet Sci. 2012;2012:495830.
  10. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/8/pdfs/14-1878.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2018.
  11. Companion Animal Parasite Council. http://www.petsandparasites.org/parasiteprevalence-maps#2018/all/lyme-disease/dog/united-states/. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  12. AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines (Revised 2017). https://www.aaha.org/aahaguidelines/vaccination-canine-configuration/vaccination-canine/. Accessed July 26, 2018.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ticks: Geographic distribution. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/geographic_distribution.html. Accessed October 14, 2013.
  14. Dambach DM, Smith CA, Lewis RM, Van Winkle TJ. Characterization of a distinctive renal lesion in dogs putatively associated with Borrelia burgdorferia infection: 49 cases (1987–1992). Vet Pathol. 1997;34:85–96
  15. Dambach DM, Smith CA, Lewis RM, Van Winkle TJ. Characterization of a distinctive renal lesion in dogs putatively associated with Borrelia burgdorferia infection: 49 cases (1987–1992). Vet Pathol. 1997;34:85–96
  16. Greene C, Rupprecht C. Rabies and other lyssavirus infections. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2006:167–183.
  17. Hoelzer K, Parrish CR. The emergence of parvoviruses of carnivores. Vet Res. 2010;41(6):39.
  18. Ikeda Y, Nakamura K, Miyazawa T, Takahashi E, Mochizuki M. Feline host range of canine parvovirus: recent emergence of new antigenic types in cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(4):341–346.
  19. Truyen U. Emergence and recent evolution of canine parvovirus. Vet Microbiol. 1999;69(1–2):47–50.
  20. Jirjis FF, Davis T, Lane J, et al. Protection against feline leukemia virus challenge for at least 2 years after vaccination with an inactivated feline leukemia virus vaccine. Vet Ther. 2010;11(2):E1–E6.
  21. Torres AN, O’Halloran KP, Larson LJ, Schultz RD, Hoover EA. Feline leukemia virus immunity induced by whole inactivated virus vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010; 134 (1–2):122–131.
  22. Patel M, Carritt K, Lane J, Jayappa H, Stahl M, Bourgeois M. Comparative efficacy of feline leukemia virus inactivated whole virus vaccine and canarypox virus-vectored vaccine during virulent FeLV challenge and immunosuppression. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015.
  23. Scherk MA, Ford RB, Gaskell RM, et al. 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel report. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(9):785-808.
  24. Scherk MA, Ford RB, Gaskell RM, et al. 2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel report. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(9):785-808.
  25. Pederson NC. lmmunogenicity and efficacy of a commercial feline leukemia vaccine. J Vet Intern Med. 1993;7(1):34-39.
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed January 30, 2019 at https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p0928-rabies.html
  27. Hines DL, Cutting JA, Dietrich DA, Walsh JA. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of an inactivated virus vaccine against feline leukemia virus infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1991;199(10):1428-1430.
  28. Greene CE, Levy JK. lmmunoprophylaxis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier; 2012:1163-1205.
  29. Gore TC, Lakshmanan N, Williams JR, et al. Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and feline panleukopenia virus. Vet Ther. 2006;7(3):213–222.
  30. Patel M, Carritt K, Lane J, Jayappa H, Stahl M, Bourgeois M. Comparative efficacy of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) inactivated whole-virus vaccine and canarypox virus-vectored vaccine during virulent FeLV challenge and immunosuppression. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:798–805.
  31. Richards JR, Elston TH, Ford RB, et al. The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel report. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;229(9):1405–1441.
  32. Outbreak map. DogFlu.com website. Available at: https://www.dogflu.com/outbreak-map. Accessed December 4, 2020.
  33. Dant JC, Waszgis B, LaFleur RL, Xu Z, Tarpey I. Duration of Immunity for an Oral Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccine. ISCAID Proceedings, Portland, OR, 2018.
  34. Companion Animal Parasite Council. Lyme Disease, Dog. Available at: https://capcvet.org/guidelines/lyme-disease/ Accessed March 29, 2019.
  35. Kapil S. Canine parvovirus: a comprehensive review and what’s new (oral presentation, 2009).
  36. Dant JC, LaFleur RL, Callister SM, Stahl M, et al. Ability of antibodies induced by canine Lyme disease vaccines to kill viable spirochetes. ISCAID Symposium Proceedings, Oct 2016, Bristol, UK
  37. Dogs continue to be at an elevated risk of heartworm disease and lyme disease in https://www.petsandparasites.org/parasite-prevalence-maps/#2020/all/felineheartworm-
    ab/cat/united-states/
    . Accessed October 1, 2020.
  38. Companion Animal Parasite Council. http://www.petsandparasites.org/parasiteprevalence-maps#2018/all/lyme-disease/dog/united-states/. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  39. Companion Animal Parasite Council. http://www.petsandparasites.org/parasiteprevalence-maps#2018/all/lyme-disease/dog/united-states/. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  40. Overview Of Lyme Borreliosis – Generalized Conditions https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/lyme-borreliosis/overview-of-lyme-borreliosis. Accessed August 3, 2019.
  41. https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/petcare/canine-respiratorycoronavirus-faq. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  42. productdata.aphis.usda.gov. Accessed October 1, 2020.
  43. LymeVax® [product label]. Florham Park, NJ: Zoetis, Inc.; 2017
  44. RECOMBITEK® Lyme [product label]. Duluth, GA: Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health; 2017.
  45. Duramune® Lyme [product label]. Greenfield, IN: Elanco; 2017.
  46. VANGUARD® crLyme [product label]. Florham Park, NJ: Zoetis, Inc.; 2017.
  47. LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Tarpey I. One year duration of immunity of a multivalent leptospira bacterin using a Leptospira challenge model. Presented at: Proceedings of the ISCAID Symposium; September 30–October 3, 2018; Portland, OR.