Canine Parvovirosis

CPV-2 is a highly contagious disease that attacks the gastrointestinal tract.

Disease Overview

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) attacks the gastrointestinal tract of puppies and dogs. There are 3 variants of the virus, CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c, which evolved only a few years after the first antigenic variants were discovered.


  • The first strains of CPV-2 emerged in the late 1970s.
  • Death can occur as early as 2 days after the onset of illness.35
  • Canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) is the most recent variant of canine parvovirus. It was first detected in Europe in 2000 and cases of canine parvovirus associated with CPV-2c in the United States were first confirmed in 2006.


CPV-2 is transmitted by direct and indirect contact:

  • Contaminated surfaces
  • Food and water bowls
  • Collars and leashes
  • Hands and clothing of people who touch a CPV-2–infected dog35


  • Lethargy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Severe, and often bloody, diarrhea


  • Young dogs
  • Dogs that come from shelters, rescue centers, breeding kennels, or pet stores
  • Boarding at a kennel or doggie daycare
  • Visiting groomers, dog parks, or engaging with other dogs on a daily basis
  • Dogs that live in multiple pet homes


Lymphopenia and neutropenia develop secondary to destruction of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow and lymphopoietic tissues.

Infection in utero or in pups less than 8 weeks of age can result in myocardial infection, necrosis, and myocarditis.

Severely affected animals may present signs potentially consistent with septic shock.


Canine Parvovirosis is shed:

  • In the feces of infected dogs within 4–5 days of exposure
  • Throughout the period of illness
  • For approximately 10 days after clinical recovery

CPV-2 is one of the most resistant viruses to infect dogs:

  • The virus can survive indoors at room temperature for a few weeks
  • If protected from sunlight and desiccation, it can persist for many months


CPV-2 enteritis should be suspected in any young, unvaccinated, or incompletely vaccinated dog with relevant clinical signs.

Over the course of the illness, most dogs develop a moderate to severe leukopenia characterized by lymphopenia and neutropenia.

Merck Animal Health Vaccines


This product has been shown to be effective for vaccination of healthy dogs 6 weeks of age or older against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 (hepatitis), canine adenovirus type 2 (respiratory disease), canine parainfluenza virus and canine parvovirus.

Professional Resources and Educational Materials

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Nobivac® Social Media Kits

Digital Assets

Use these ready-to-share posts to educate pet parents and drive business to your clinic for preventative care.

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Addressing CIV in Your Clinic


Tips and guidelines for your clinic to prevent and manage canine influenza.

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AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines


In-depth information about canine vaccinations and veterinary best practices.


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